Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase ASE, SQL Anywhere

Numeric
bit
tinyint
smallint
int
bigint
float
decimal
numeric
real
smallmoney
money

Date and time
smalldatetime
datetime
date (*)
time (*)
datetime2 (*) (**)
datetimeoffset (*)

Character
char
nchar
varchar
nvarchar
text
ntext
sysname

(*) For SQL Server 2008 and newer.

(**) Not supported in Sybase ASE / SQL Anywhere

Note that FreeTDS does report does not identify date datatypes datatypes correctly. Use ':type=date' notation in column name to specify the correct datatype.

declare @d date
declare @dt datetime2
declare @time time
declare @datetimeoffset datetimeoffset


select @d = getdate(), @dt = getdate(), @time = getdate(), @datetimeoffset = getdate()

select  @d as 'date:type=date', 
	@dt as 'datetime2:type=datetime', 
	@time as 'time:type=time', 
	@datetimeoffset as 'datetimeoffset:type=datetime'